Philosophy‎ > ‎

Multiple Intelligences

 Howard Gardner, a professor in the Harvard Graduate School of Education, introduced the theory of Multiple Intelligences in Frames of Mind (1983). He suggested that intelligence is a multidimensional attribute inadequately measured with I.Q. tests, which examine verbal and mathematical skills only.


The theory of Multiple Intelligences values at least eight distinct kinds of intelligence, including the following:
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic (Body Smart)
  • Interpersonal (People Smart)
  • Intrapersonal (Self Smart)
  • Logical-Mathematical (Math Smart)
  • Musical-Rhythmic (Music Smart)
  • Naturalistic (Nature Smart)
  • Verbal-Linguistic (Word Smart)
  • Visual-Spatial (Art Smart)

Teachers at Discovery School plan lessons with this theory in mind. Students also attend our Flow Room, called Creation Station, one day each week. “Flow” is an optimal state of being where students are totally immersed in learning. In Creation Station, students are exposed to a wide range of learning opportunities centered around their particular interests, intelligences, and areas of strength.


For more information, visit http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html


Multiple Intelligences


For children to grow there must be a guide;

Strengths and limitations need to be identified.

Gardner’s organized approach is a philosophy

Born in “Frames of Mind” in 1983.



There are eight intelligences we know for a fact.

Since they build on each other—they all interact.

Divided into domains, instead of abilities

Each captures the strength of a child’s capacities.



The Linguistic domain is an effective way

To accurately use words in what we read, write, and say.

Gifted in language you might have in sight

A career as a poet, politician, or playwright.



The Logical-Mathematical domain is unique;

Dealing with numbers is a scientific technique.

An accountant or a banker needs the ability

To consistently reason with accuracy.



The Spatial domain is in the mind’s eyes;

For a hunter or guide, it’s where talent lies.

Spatial is perception of color, shape, and line.

As an artist or inventor you would do just fine.



The Kinesthetic domain is an art that demands

The skill of a mechanic’s or surgeon’s hands.

If mime, actor, or dancer is your future role

Then you have an awareness of body control.



The Musical domain is instrumental with song;

Whether playing or singing you cannot go wrong.

A composer, performer, or critic will be

Appreciative of rhythm, tone, and melody.



The Interpersonal domain is a reflection

Of how we respond to another’s expression;

To know and understand with sensitivity,

A career in psychology is a possibility.



The Intrapersonal domain is all about you—

Learning from experience and setting goals to pursue;

Expressing self-discipline, self-knowledge, self-esteem.

Knowing your limitations can benefit your dream.



The Naturalistic domain is intelligence eight;

It’s the skill of all scientists to investigate.

As consumers we often discriminate,

Using naturalistic talent for choices we make.



As educators our goal is to recognize

Where each student’s strongest intelligence lies.

Since all the intelligences need to interact

We must awaken limitations to make a pact.



Susan R. Johnson

Retired teacher from Discovery School